THE LATIN

1. participles are verbal adjectives! verbs acting like adjectives.

oculus â longê prôspiciêns = the eye looking out from afar

2. Participles can be used substantivally:

Sêrô venientibus ossa. = To [those] coming late, bones.

3. Participles can have objects:

Timeô Danaôs et dona ferentês. = I fear the Greeks even [when they are] bearing gifts.

4. ipse equo circumiens unum quemque nominans appellat, hortatur…

= He himself circling on his horse, naming each one, calls them, encourages them…

5. Participles can have tense and voice.

“suffering” is a passive participle (cf gerund?)

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