1. participles are verbal adjectives! verbs acting like adjectives.
oculus â longê prôspiciêns = the eye looking out from afar
2. Participles can be used substantivally:
Sêrô venientibus ossa. = To [those] coming late, bones.
3. Participles can have objects:
Timeô Danaôs et dona ferentês. = I fear the Greeks even [when they are] bearing gifts.
4. ipse equo circumiens unum quemque nominans appellat, hortatur…
= He himself circling on his horse, naming each one, calls them, encourages them…
5. Participles can have tense and voice.
“suffering” is a passive participle (cf gerund?)