Positive contrast agents
Barium (rads)
Iodinated – ionic (rads, CT)
Iodinated – nonoinic (rads, CT)


Piperidine is responsible for tobacco’s teratogenic effects
– nicotinic effects at ganglia & NMJ
Pyridine { nicotine
Pyrrolizidine is responsible for rattlebox’s hepatotoxicity
Taxine in Yew causes cardiotoxicity

equine nigropallidal encephalomalacia (“chewing disease”) – Centaurea (starthistle)

Acute selenium: GI irritation and respiratory signs
Chronic selenium: hoof and hair abnormalities
Molybdenum (Cu def): water bubbly diarrhea, wasting, anemia, depigmentation, demyelination, osteoporosis

Nitrate (pigweed, tall grasses)
Acute nitrate: GI irritation, metHb formation (use methylene blue), asphyxiation, abortion; sudden death with no signs (ocular fluid; diphenlyamine)
Chronic nitrate: DECREASED PROGESTERONE, abortion

Horses are more sensitive to monensin b/c monogastric AND b/c equines have low oxydative demethylases

pit viper toxicity: rattle > cotton > copper (most common)
– “The primary effect is hypercoagulation”

coral snake: “The primary effect is neurotoxic”
– curare-like
– intravascular hemolysis & hemoglobinuria


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