Thalamocortex lesions

Intelligence, goal-directed behavior

Depressed mental status feat. head pressing, circling

Conscious proprioception ataxia with motor cortex lesions

BEHAVIOR IS CONTRALATERAL. Thalamic or parietal cortical lesions can lead to a lack of avoidance behavior in the contralateral nostril or earhole. (REFLEXES ARE IPSILATERAL, EXCEPT CROSSED-EXTENSOR REFLEX, WHICH HAS THAT NAME B/C IT IS UNIQUE)


Brainstem lesions

The bulk of the brainstem is made up of the RAS, responsible for arousal of the cerebrum

The parasympathetic nucleus of the brainstem

Vestibular nuclei

Depressed mental status but aware of surroundings

Abnormal posture: head tilt

Circling left, nystagmous fast phase to the right = left side vestibular problem

(Nystagmus slow phase is towards affected side. Why we describe using fast phase???)


CN lesions

The optic nerve decussates in the optic tract (according to Dr K)

The parasympathetic nucleus (midbrain) of the oculomotor nerve (pupil constriction)

  • The optic nerve (in) decussates twice

  • Damage to the oculomotor nerve itself or the parasympathetic nucleus in the brainstem leads to ipsilateral pupillary dilatation

  • “With unilateral oculomotor nerve dysfunction the contralateral pupil will constrict when the eye on the affected side is stimulated.”


Cerebellum lesions

Abnormal posture; intention tremor

Unconscious proprioception ataxia


Nonspecific “intracranial” lesions

Abnormal posture: Opisthotonos (UMN neck; rigid dorsal extension)





Positive contrast agents
Barium (rads)
Iodinated – ionic (rads, CT)
Iodinated – nonoinic (rads, CT)


Piperidine is responsible for tobacco’s teratogenic effects
– nicotinic effects at ganglia & NMJ
Pyridine { nicotine
Pyrrolizidine is responsible for rattlebox’s hepatotoxicity
Taxine in Yew causes cardiotoxicity

equine nigropallidal encephalomalacia (“chewing disease”) – Centaurea (starthistle)

Acute selenium: GI irritation and respiratory signs
Chronic selenium: hoof and hair abnormalities
Molybdenum (Cu def): water bubbly diarrhea, wasting, anemia, depigmentation, demyelination, osteoporosis

Nitrate (pigweed, tall grasses)
Acute nitrate: GI irritation, metHb formation (use methylene blue), asphyxiation, abortion; sudden death with no signs (ocular fluid; diphenlyamine)
Chronic nitrate: DECREASED PROGESTERONE, abortion

Horses are more sensitive to monensin b/c monogastric AND b/c equines have low oxydative demethylases

pit viper toxicity: rattle > cotton > copper (most common)
– “The primary effect is hypercoagulation”

coral snake: “The primary effect is neurotoxic”
– curare-like
– intravascular hemolysis & hemoglobinuria

DI notes

-> medial iliac lymphadenopathy
-> regional peritonitis
-> diskospondylitis

inflammation = mottled appearance, not homogenous; gas opacity

(1) ribs, vertebrae, and the visible portions of the pelvis and pelvic limbs; (2) soft tissues of the abdominal wall; (3) serosal detail and character of retroperitoneal space; (4) serosal detail and character of peritoneal space; (5) parenchymal organs (liver,
spleen, kidneys); (6) urinary bladder; (7) organs not typically
seen; (8) stomach; (9) duodenum and jejunum; and finally
(10) the cecum and colon.

peritoneum { parietal, visceral, and connecting layers
connecting { mesenteries, omenta, intraabdominal ligaments
retroperitoneal space { adrenals, kidneys, ureters, major vessels, LN

abdominal LN { parietal, visceral

parietal LN (retroperitoneal) { spine, adrenals, kidneys, DCd abd, pelvis, pelvic limbs
– medial iliac lymph nodes: the largest of the sublumbar group, btwn deep circumflex iliac and external iliac aa; ventral to L5-6, sometimes L6-7
“The most common cause of medial iliac lymphadenopathy is neoplasia.”

visceral LN { liver, spleen, pancreas, stomach, intestine
– Cr mesenteric LN (largest) { jejunum, ileum, pancreas
“Visceral abdominal lymph nodes rarely enlarge enough to
be seen radiographically, tending to silhouette with surrounding


tubular structure btwn colon and bladder => uterus
– may contain fetal skeletons (not normally detected otherwise)
– the earliest detectable mineralization is 42 days (6w, gestation is 9w)
– in cats, 35 days (5w of 9w)



Noun[edit] σῶμα…

σῶμα • (sōma) (genitive σώματος) n, third declension

body (both that of people and animals)
dead body (most common in Homer and other early works)
One’s life in the physical world
That which is material (as opposed to spiritual)
An entire thing
(mathematics) three-dimensional object

open me


direct chemical injury of cell membranes
– skin, eyes, URT, and oral cavity
– corrosives/caustics, phenols, aldehydes, alcohols,
– petroleum distillates, heavy metal salts
– astringents
epithelial necrosis by systemic toxicosis causing energy def
– metabolicaly active cells (renal, liver, marrow, GI)
compete with endogenous substates at binding sites
– oxalic acid
excessive levels of nutrients: Vit D, selenium, and iodine
– same organs affected by deficiencies
– heavy metals, dioxins, and mycotoxins
Developmental defects

legum servi sumus ut liberi esse possimus
We are slaves of the law in order that we may be able to be free.

non semper erit aestas
It will not always be summer

ne quid nimis
Nothing in excess.

nosce te ipsum
Know thyself

omnia mutantur nos et mutamur in illis
All things change, and we change with them

quis custodiet ipsos custodes?
Who will watch the watchers themselves?

respice, adspice, prospice
Examine the past, examine the present, examine the future

sic transit gloria mundi
So passes away earthly glory

ut sementem feceris ita metes
As you sow so will you reap.


the femoral nerve innervates the
quadriceps femoris:
>extension of stifle
necessary to support weight on hindlimb

the ventral branches of the sixth and seventh lumbar spinal >nerves and the first two sacral spinal nerves unite to form a >lumbosacral trunk. the nerves that arise from this trunk are the >caudal gluteal, cranial gluteal, and sciatic.

the sciatic nerve innervates the
biceps femoris, semimemb, semitend
>extensors of the hip
>flexors of the stifle
then splits into cranial and caudal branches

the tibial nerve is “the caudal portion of the sciatic nerve”
it separates from the common peroneal nerve in the thigh
>tarsal extensors
>digital flexors
gastrocnemius, popliteus, SDF, DDF
then splits into the plantar nerves

the fibular nerve is smaller
>tarsal flexors
>digital extensors
cranial tibial, fibularis longus, long digital extensor

the pudendal nerve

endocrinology meds

Calcium gluconate

Dexamethasone Treat “thyroid storm”

Dextrose acute hypoglycemic crisis: 1cc per kg.

Diazoxide manage insulinoma with GC (inhibit insulin, promote E)



Glucocorticoids Euthyroid sick syndrome – identical pattern to hypothyroidism. Prevent conversion of T4 to T3.


Iopanoic acid (Telapaque) Alternative to methimazole. Blocks T4 -> T3. Monitor [T3].


Levothyroxine Synthetic T4: Soloxine tablets or Leventa soln. Treatment of choice for canine and feline hypoT4. Assess [T4] one month in.


Methimazole (Tapazole)blocks iodide incorporation. Recheck [T4], BUN, crt @7-10d. Adverse reaction (10%): GI upsets (voms, anorexia), facial pruritis, marrow suppression, hemolytic anemia. Alt: Iopanate. Life expectancy increases with I131.

Phenobarbital Euthyroid sick syndrome – identical pattern to hypothyroidism

Pertechnetate (99mTc) diagnostic nuclear scintigraphy; visualize functioning thyroid tissue

Prednisone manage insulinoma (antagonize insulin)

Propanolol Treat “thyroid storm”


Somatostatin (octreotide) insulinoma (inhibit insulin)

Streptozoin insulinoma (beta cell cytotoxicity)

Sulfonamides Euthyroid sick syndrome – identical pattern to hypothyroidism


TSH bovine TSH no longer available for TSH stimulation test

Hill’s Y/D Iodine restricted diet

dog breeds

Beagle heritable autoimmune thyroiditis

Cocker spaniel IMHA

Doberman Hypothyroidism common

Golden Hypothyroidism common

Greyhound Lower than normal T4

Rottweiler over-represent myxedema coma


anesthesia exam 1o3


“Of the injectable induction drugs, ketamine is the least likely to cause complete apnea.”

Uptake of inhalant anesthesia depends on: cardiac output, “PA-PV difference”, barometric pressure, and solubility (of the inhalant). NOT affected by boiling point. b/c the vap compensates for that, i guess?

3. Appropriate ventilation for a 35 kg sheep:
VT = 525 mL – I:E 1:3 – PIP 20 – f 8
ddx: VT 300 VT 800 PIP 40 f 12

tidal volume: 15 mL/kg (=525)

inspiratory time: 1.5 to 3 seconds

I:E ratio: 1:2 (max 1:4.5)

PIP: 20 to 30 cm H2O

f (pigs and small ruminants): 8-12 BPM 

Capnography can: detect esophageal intubation. give information regarding the CO. indicate bronchospasm. detect faulty valves.
Capnography cannot: give an early indication of hypoxia.

Given Ventricular tachycardia causing pulse defects. Oscillometry will give the least accurate BP (options were Doppler, invasive)

(100% FiO2) Pulse ox can: monitor CV and pulmonary function. Give pulse rate. Give irregular heart beats. Give SaO2.
Pulse ox cannot: give exact PaO2